Across Canada, those seeking to protect biodiversity and those seeking mineral wealth have often ended up looking up the same valleys. Mineral development - from exploration to mine closure - poses some unique challenges and concern. This discussion paper lays out some of the primary issues and concerns related to mining in protected areas from a biodiversity-protection perspective. It provides an overview for those concerned about mining and environment conflicts, and raises questions about future directions. Prepared by the Environmental Mining Council of British Columbia for the World Wildlife Federation.